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Colloidal Silver Scientific References and Books on Colloidal Silver
Contents of this page:
Note the first 2 recent important antiviral references.
"Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to and inactivate HIV-1 virus" at http://www.physorg.com/news7264.html
"SILVER KILLS HIV VIRUSES, STUDY FINDS" at http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=1401
In November 1996 a major hospital in
'Experiences of the first 16 hospitals using copper-silver ionization for Legionella control: implications for the evaluation of other disinfectionâ at http://www.kibsolar.com/content/files/necon/Study_copper_silver_ionisation_in_hospitals.pdf
1. Water Science and Technology 31:5-6 (1995) 123-129 - Rami Pedahzur et al. - The interaction of silver ions and hydrogen peroxide in the inactivation of E. coli: a preliminary evaluation of a new long acting residual drinking water disinfectant
2. Water Science and Technology 31:5-6 (1995) 119-122 - J. M. Cassells et al. - Efficacy of a combined system of copper and silver and free chlorine for inactivation of Naegleria fowleri amoebas in water
3. Water Science and Technology 35:11-12 (1997) 87-93 - R. Pedahzur et al. - Silver and hydrogen peroxide as potential drinking water disinfectants: their bactericidal effects and possible modes of action
8. Silver Institute at www.silverinstitute.org
9. Ions are positive, particles are negatively charged at http://www.silver-colloids.com/Papers/IonsAtoms&ChargedParticles.PDF
12. Contract for Water Treatment Chemicals/Pool Ionization by State of
18. Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to HIV-1 virus at http://www.physorg.com/news7264.html
19. SILVER KILLS VIRUSES, STUDY FINDS at http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=1401
20. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles "Our results indicate that the bactericidal properties of the nanoparticles are size dependent, since the only nanoparticles that present a direct interaction with the bacteria preferentially have a diameter of ~1â10 nm" at http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0957-4484/16/10/059
22. Stroke risk linked to bacterial infection at New Scientist vol 178 issue 2392 - 26 April 2003, page 20 http://archive.newscientist.com/secure/article/article.jsp?rp=1&id=mg17823921.800
23. Bugs trigger attack on heart, New Scientist vol 180 issue 2422 - 22 November 2003, page 20
24. Heart-breaking bugs; Infections trigger heart disease?, New Scientist vol 169 issue 2284 - 31 March 2001, page 18
25. Bladder Biofilms: Escherichia coli forms intracellular biofilm-like pods in infected urinary bladders at http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20030704/03
27. "Silver Helps Regrow Tissues in Hundreds of Patients - Destroyed Cells Regenerate With Silver-Based Procedure" by Samuel Etris Senior Technical Consultant to The Silver Institute at http://www.silverinstitute.org/news/4a1999.html
28. "Antibacterial efficacy of a colloidal silver complex", Surg Forum. 1966;17:76-8. by Brentano L, Margraf H, Monafo WW,
29. "The Role of Antimicrobial Silver Nanotechnology", A new silver nanotechnology chemistry can prevent the formation of life-threatening biofilms on medical devices. by Bruce Gibbins and Lenna Warner at Medical Device Link, August, 2005 http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/05/08/005.html
30. "Metallic elixir: Silver may fight what ails you" at http://www.amsilver.com/dnews1.htm
31. "BACTERIA TESTING of a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent" at http://vitaminlady.com/Special/ASAP_%20SilverSolution.asp
32. "Gold Powder" at http://www.twinflamedistribution.com
34. Colloidal Silver Database Web Site at http://www.silvermedicine.org/
35. University study documents the results of a quality colloidal silver product tested against a wide range of illness-causing pathogens. The study proves that colloidal silver is effective as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus, Candida, Salmonella and Pseudomonas in laboratory studies ( in-vitro ) at http://www.silvermedicine.org/colloidalsilverstudytexas.html
36. Article on CS http://www.curezone.com/foods/silver.html
37. Canadian BC government report on benefits and safety of Silver at http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/BCguidelines/silver/
39. "Metallic elixir: Silver may fight what ails you" at http://www.amsilver.com/dnews1.htm
40. "BACTERIA TESTING of a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent" at http://vitaminlady.com/Special/ASAP_%20SilverSolution.asp
42. Review of the best generators on the market at http://www.silvermedicine.org/colloidal-silver-generators.html
44. "Effects of Silver on Wound Management" by Robert H. Demling, MD; Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Director, Burn-Wound Center, Brigham & Women's Hospital; Leslie DeSanti, RN,; Director, Burn and Wound Care Program, Health South Braintree Rehabilitation Hospital, Research Associate, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachussetts at WOUNDS. Demling RH, DeSanti L. Effects of silver on wound management. WOUNDS 2001;13(1 Suppl A):1â15. "addition to antibacterial properties, there appears to be a prohealing property to silver". At http://www.2012.com.au/Colloidal_SilverB.html
45. "Researchers Examine the Environmental Effects of Silver Nanoparticles: Now used in bandages, clothing, cosmetics, car wax, laundries, plastic tubing in beverage plants, hospital operating rooms, toys, food preservative, sewage treatment, drinking water" at http://www.physorg.com/news97944800.html
46. "Colloidal silver gaining ground as a proven, effective antibiotic remedy" at http://www.newstarget.com/010038.html
47. "Garments treated with metallic silver nanoparticles prevent colds and flu"at http://www.physorg.com/preview97384337.html
48. "Antibacterial silver products finally begin to emerge after years of FDA oppression" at http://www.newstarget.com/010761.html
49. "EPA uses nanotech regulation ploy to target colloidal silver while ignoring all other nanotech particles" at http://www.newstarget.com/021231.html
50. "Colloidal silver antibacterial liquid sprayed on
51. Clinical Experiments Show Silver Compound Can Help AIDS Patients: Researchers Say Silver Oxide Offsets AIDS Loss of Immune Response by Samuel Etris, Senior Technical Consultant to The Silver Institute at http://www.silverinstitute.org/news/2a1998.htm
52. Thurman, R.B. and Gerba, C.P. (1989), The Molecular Mechanisms of Copper and Silver Ion Disinfection of Bacteria and Viruses, CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 295â315
53. Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: Death of E. coli bacteria, by Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B., Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute,
54. âNew study warns chlorine bad for asthma sufferersâ , The World Today - Thursday, 29 May , 2003 at http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s867621.htm
55. Silver facts, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts146.html
56. Silver and the EPA at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0099.htm
57. Trihalomethanes (byproduct of chlorinating water) and Our Water Supply at http://www.southerndatastream.com/thm/index.html#Introduction
58. Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles attach to HIV-1 virus (joint project between the
59. "Silver Kills HIV Viruses, Study Finds" At www.freemarketnews.com/worldnews.asp?Nid=1401
60. Warning on recreational water illness (RWI) and why chlorine may not work, "Healthy Swimming 2003" by the CDC at www.cdc.gov/healthyswimming
61. Biofilm, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofilm
1. The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life Robert O. Becker Gary Selden David Bichell
2. Natureâs Silver Bullet: Killing the Fear factor by Dr Howard Fisher, 2006, ISBN 0-9736859-2-1
3. Silver-Colloids - Do They Work? by Professor Ronald J. Gibbs
4. Colloidal Silver : Antibiotic Superhero by Johnny Silverseed
5. Colloidal Silver : Making the Safest and Most Powerful Medicine on Earth for the Price of Water by Mark Metcalf
6. Colloidal Silver : The Wonder Cure Time Forgot by Tonita dâRaye, 1998
7. Colloidal Silver by Zane Baranovsky
8. Cross Currents : The Promise of Electromedicine, the Perils of Electropollution - by Robert O. Becker.
9. Silver Colloid - The True Picture by William Briggs
10. Silver Colloids - Do They Work? by Ronald J. Gibbs
11. The Colloidal Silver Report by Zoe Adams
12. The New Silver Solution: An Information Guide to Silver Solutions by Dr Kenneth Friedman, 1999
13. The Micro Silver Bullet by M., Paul Dr. Farber. A Scientifically Documented Answer three of the largest Epidemics in the World: Lyme Disease, Aids Virus, Yeast Infection, and the Common Cold. Forward by Dr. John Parks Trowbridge, M. D.
14. Colloidal Silver: A Literature Review: Medical Uses, Toxicology & Manufacture - Second Edition - By John Hill This book is the most comprehensive and objective reference on colloidal silver available.
1. âUS SURVEY OF HOSPITALS USING COPPER-SILVER IONIZATION FOR THE CONTROL OF LEGIONELLAâ , 5th International Conference on Legionella,September 26-29, 2000, Ulm, Germany, September 26-29, 2000,Janet E. Stout, Y.E. Lin, V.L. Yu, Infectious Disease Section, VA Medical Center,
Despite documentation of its efficacy in numerous hospitals, the long term efficacy of copper-silver ionization for controlling Legionella pneumophila in hospital water distribution systems has not been well documented. We conducted a survey of the first 13 hospitals in the
2. âDisinfection of Bacteria In Water Systems by Using Electrolytically Generated Copper: Silver & Reduced Levels of Free Chlorineâ, AUTHORS: Yahya MT, Landeen LK, Mesina MC, Kutz SM, Schultze R, & Gerba CP PUBLICATION REF: Canadian Journal of Microbiology 36: 109-116, 1990
The recommended minimum level of free chlorine for disinfection of public swimming pools is 1 mg/liter. This level is difficult to maintain due to the chlorine-demanding organic material introduced by bathers themselves as well as the environment. Eye and skin irritation may also occur at the minimum chlorine level needed for effective disinfection. Electrolytically generated copper/silver ions are also microbiocidal and are much less subject to degradation but are slower acting than chlorine. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that using the two methods together would accomplish effective disinfection while reducing the level of free chlorine required.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Two 32-gallon plastic containers, one indoors (temperature range 22 to 25) and the second outdoors exposed to sunlight (temperature range 18 to 36) were filled with tap water. After chemical analysis and adjustment of pH and test levels of disinfectants, bath water and urine were added to stimulate typical swimming conditions. Four treatment regimens were tested: (1) No added disinfectants (2) Free chlorine alone at the generally recommended level of 1 mg/liter (3) Free chlorine at 0.3 mg/liter combined with copper and silver ions at a ration of 400 ug/liter of copper to 40 ug/liter of silver (4) Copper and silver ions alone at the same ratio as above. An isolate of Staphylococcus sp was employed for bacterial challenge testing since previous work had shown that staphylococci are more resistant to disinfection than are coli form bacteria. The experiment was continued for 12 weeks.
In the test of free chlorine alone, location proved to be critical. In the outdoor setting subject to strong sunlight and high temperatures, no residual chlorine could be detected 3 to 4 hours after optimization. Indoor, where environmental factors were much less extreme, a residual level of 0.1 to 0.3 mg/liter was found after 24 hours.
Bacterial counts were kept within drinking water standards (as recommended for swimming pools) by either high levels of chlorine alone or by the combination regimen of copper and silver ions with low levels of chlorine: the difference in total bacterial numbers was not significant. Hen challenged with Staphylococcus sp isolate, the combination of copper and silver ions with low levels of chlorine achieved a 2.4 log 10 reduction in bacterial numbers within 2 minutes, while the single-agent regimes (free chlorine alone, or copper/silver alone) showed only 1.5 & 0.03 log 10 reductions respectively. Under Staphylococcus sp challenge, the combined copper/silver and free chlorine had a faster log 10 reduction of microbial numbers than did treatment with a high level of chlorine alone.
The addition of electrolytically generated copper/silver ions in the radio tested (400 ug/liter copper to 40 ug/liter silver) allowed reduction in the concentration of free chlorine to one third of the level customarily recommended. The use of copper/silver may provide resisting protection in swimming pools after chlorine has been rendered ineffective due to contamination from swimmers and the natural environment.
âMicrobiological Evaluation of Copper: Silver Disinfection Unitsâ, AUTHORS: Kutz SM, Landeen LK,
PURPOSE: Although chlorination is the traditional method of disinfecting swimming pools, hot tubs, and cooling towers to prevent outbreaks of illness due to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, high levels of chlorine can cause eye and skin irritation was well giving rise to a noticeable chlorine odor. The authors evaluated electrolytically generated copper: silver ions alone and in combination with low levels of free chlorine as an alternative method of reducing the bacterial population in water.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The test medium was local well water which was subjected to chemical analysis, filtering, and pH stabilization and used at room temperature. Suspensions of the following organisms were prepared: Escherichia coli, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella TYPHII, Klebsiella terrigena, and Streptococcus faecalls. Approximately 1 ml of the selected bacterial suspension was added to 99 ml of test medium containing (1) copper: silver ions in a concentration of 400 ug/liter copper to 40 ug/liter silver, (2) free chlorine (0.2 mg/liter) alone, or (3) a combination of copper: silver ions and free chlorine (quantities as above). Cultures were incubated and the bacterial colonies enumerated, after which statistical analysis were performed.
The bacteria tested were inactivated more rapidly in a solution in which electrolytically generated copper and silver ions were added to low levels of chlorine than where either method was used separately. Some organisms were more resistant to treatment than others. In the experiments with Salmonella typehi and Klebsiella terrigena no viable cells were recovered after 30 seconds of exposure to either chlorine alone or to the combined regimen, indicating equal effectiveness when resistance to disinfection is low. On the other hand, Legionella pneumophilia titers decreased more than 5 log 10 values after 7 minutes of exposure to free chlorine (0.2 mg/liters) alone for the same length of time. Similarly, E. coli numbers were reduced by 4.2 log 10 by the combination regimen but by less than 3 log 10 after extended exposure to the copper: silver method without chlorine.
The use of electrolytically generated copper and silver ions in combination with low levels of free chlorine proved an effective method of killing a wide range of pathogenic bacteria under controlled test conditions. Such bacteria are of potential concern in swimming pools and cooling towers.
3. âInactivation of Poliovirus & Bacteriophage MS-2 by Copper/Silver and Reduced Levels of Free Chlorineâ, AUTHORS: Landeen LK,
PURPOSE OF STUDY:
Viruses tend to be more resistant than bacteria to disinfection regimes. Although chlorination is widely used to control viral contamination, high levels of chlorine promote the formation of organic compounds in water that may be hazardous to human health. An alternative method, copper and silver ion treatment, is known to be effective against bacteria and algae. The authors tested electrolytically generated copper and silver ions, alone and in the presence of reduced levels of free chlorine, in treating water sample to which either bacteriophage MS-2 or poliovirus had been added to test effectiveness against viral contamination.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Purified bacteriophage MS-2 and poliovirus type I were prepared by standard methods in pellet form. The viral pellets were placed in samples of filtered well water. The virus-containing samples were then exposed to one of the following treatment regimens: (1) no added disinfectant, i.e. untreated control; (2) low levels of free chlorine; (3) a combination of copper: silver with free chlorine; (4) copper: silver ions without chlorine; or (5) either copper or silver without chlorine. Experiments were performed in duplicate at room temperature. Linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the viral inactivation rates for each treatment regimen.
The bacteriophage MS-2 inactivation rate for copper alone was significantly higher when the concentration reached 400 ug/liter. The MS-2 inactivation rate for electrolytically generated copper and silver ions together was greater than for either metal alone, suggesting an additive effect. Although not significant for very low levels of chlorine, the addition of 0.3 mg/liter of free chlorine to a 400/40 ug/liter copper/silver regimen significantly enhanced MS-2 inactivation rates.
Similarly for poliovirus, the activation rates achieved with the 400/40 copper/silver regimen were significantly greater as compared with untreated controls. The number of poliovirus were reduced approximately 2.5 log 10 within 72 hours. The addition of 0.3 mg/liter of free chlorine again improved the inactivation rates achieved, although in this case the improvement did not reach statistical significance. Poliovirus showed greater resistance to inactivation by any means tested than did bacteriophage MS-2.
Electrolytically generated copper and silver ions demonstrate efficacy against bacteriophage MS-2; further improvement occurs with the addition of reduced levels of free chlorine. The same regimen is capable of inactivating an enteric virus such as poliovirus in the presence or absence of free chlorine. The same regimen is capable of inactivating an enteric virus such as poliovirus in the presence or absence of free chlorine. Therefore, a regimen in which copper: silver ion treatment is combined with low levels of chlorine should prove useful as a method of disinfecting water against viral contamination.
4. âPersistent silver disinfectant for the environmental control of pathogenic bacteriaâ, Brady MJ, Lisay CM, Yurkovetskiy AV, Sawan SP. Intelligent Biocides, LLC, 37 Beverlee Road, Tyngsborough, MA 01879, USA.
BACKGROUND: Contaminated surfaces can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms and potentially exacerbate the risk of infection. Surface disinfection and decontamination provide temporary amelioration against bacterial colonization. Disinfected surfaces eventually become contaminated, thus, mitigating the benefit of the initial disinfection. It is hypothesized that to improve on the current state of the art, a disinfectant should not only immediately disinfect a surface but also provide persistent antimicrobial action after the product has been applied. We describe here a silver-based disinfectant technology designed to provide long-lasting sanitization and disinfection to treated surfaces as evaluated on hard surfaces after repeated environmental insults. METHODS: A comparative evaluation of 6 disinfectant formulations for residual antimicrobial activity after water rinsing was performed. Log reduction of bacterial populations on disinfectant-treated substrates were measured after 30 minutes to 8 hours of exposure and compared with an untreated control. In a similar study, the residual antimicrobial activity of a silver disinfectant was evaluated against antibiotic- and biocide-resistant bacteria also after water rinsing. Further, residual antimicrobial activity of the silver disinfectant was measured after 5 cycles of rinsing, abrasion, and contamination against representative household and nosocomial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, or Salmonella choleraesuis) after 10-minute exposure times. RESULTS: In the comparative assay, only the silver disinfectant and a persistent quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant demonstrated significant residual activity (> or =3.0 log(10) reduction to control) against S aureus whereas only the silver disinfectant demonstrated activity against Pseudomonas. No residual activity (< or = 0.5 log reduction to untreated control) was observed for the other disinfectant products. The silver-based disinfectant also showed significant and equivalent efficacy against antibiotic- and silver-resistant bacteria. In addition, the silver disinfectant was able to achieve significant residual activity in 10 minutes against all organisms tested after 1, 3, and 5 cycles of water rinse, abrasion, and microbial contamination. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show the ability of a new silver-based disinfectant to reduce bacterial populations that contact treated surfaces within minutes, highlight the potential to interrupt cross-contamination from environmental surfaces, and reduce the risk of infection within the home and health care settings.
5. âSilver as a disinfectantâ SILVESTRY-RODRIGUEZ Nadia (1) ; SICAIROS-RUELAS Enue E. (2) ; GERBA Charles P. (2) ; BRIGHT Kelly R. (2) ;
Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering,
(2) Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science,
RÃ©sumÃ© / Abstract
Silver has been used as an antimicrobial for thousands of years. Over the past several decades, it has been introduced into numerous new venues such as in the treatment of water, in dietary supplements, in medical applications, and to produce antimicrobial coatings and products. Silver is often used as an alternative disinfectant in applications in which the use of traditional disinfectants such as chlorine may result in the formation of toxic by-products or cause corrosion of surfaces. Silver has also been demonstrated to produce a synergistic effect in combination with several other disinfectants. Many mechanisms of the antibacterial effect of silver have been described, but its antiviral and antiprotozoal mechanisms are not well understood. Both microbial tolerance and resistance to silver have been reported; however, the effect of silver has been observed against a wide variety of microorganisms over a period of years. Further research is needed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of silver in these new applications and the effects of its long-term usage.
Revue / Journal Title
Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology ISSN 0179-5953
6. Copper Silver Distribution System Study: "Intermittent Use of Copper-Silver Ionization for Legionella Control in Water Distribution Systems: A Potential Option in Buildings Housing Individuals at Low Risk of Infection" Clinical Infectious Diseases 1998;26:138-40 Zeming Liu, Janet E. Stout, Marcie Boldin, John Rugh, Warren F. Diven, and Victor L. Yu From the University of Pittsburgh and Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
"One copper-silver ionization system was sequentially installed onto the hot-water recirculation lines of two hospital buildings colonized with Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1. A third building with the same water supply and also colonized with Legionella served as a control. Four weeks after activation of the system, distal site positivity for Legionella in the first test building dropped to zero. After operating for 16 weeks, the system was disconnected and installed onto the second test building. Twelve weeks of disinfection reduced the distal site positivity for Legionella in the second test building to zero. Legionella recolonization did not occur in the first test building for 6 - 12 weeks and in the second test building for 8 - 12 weeks after inactivation of the system. The control building remained Legionella-positive throughout the experimental period. A significantly higher copper concentration was found in the biofilm taken from a sampling device than in that from water. This is likely to be the reason that the copper-silver ionization system had the residual effect of preventing early recolonization. Our study raises the possibility that one copper-silver unit could be rotated among several buildings to maintain a Legionella-free environment. Such an approach may be cost-effective for buildings housing individuals at low risk for contracting legionnaires' disease."
"In the first test building, the Legionella positivity was reduced from 50% (before start-up) to zero after 4 weeks."
7. âCopper Silver Effectiveness Study: "Individual and combined effects of copper and silver and silver ions on inactivation of Legionella Pneumophila", Lin Y S E, Vidic R D, Stout J E, Yu V L. Water Research 1996. 8:905-913.
Copper/Silver ionization is a new disinfection method that is being used to eradicate Legionella pneumophila from hospital hot water recirculating systems. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 to copper and silver ions alone and in combination. L. pneumophila serogroup (L. p. sg-1) was completely inactivated (6-log reduction) at copper concentration of 0.1mg/l within 2.5 h, whereas more than 24 h was required to achieve a similar reduction at the highest silver ion concentration tested (0.08 mg/l). Checkerboard method and Gard additive model prediction demonstrated that copper and silver ions in combination could result in additive and synergistic effect depending on the concentration of copper and silver ions. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, synergism of copper/silver ions in eradicating L. p. sg-1 was observed at higher concentration combinations of copper/silver ions (e.g. 0.04/0.04 mg/l) while only an additive effect was observed at lower concentration combinations (e.g. 0.02/0.02 mg/l). This study suggested that both copper and silver ions are effective in inactivating Legionella pneumophila and the combined effect is greater than that seen with either ion alone.
8. âThe Walkerton Tragedy: A Case for Risk Reduction using a Multi-Barrier Approach; A Lesson for the Great Lakes?: Pathogenic Organisms in
The waterborne disease outbreak in
1. âSilver as a Residual Disinfectant to Prevent Biofilm Formation in Water Distribution Systemsâ, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.02237-07,
This corrosive form of silver is the least biocompatible yet considered safe to 0.1 ppm. More biocompatible silver atoms are produced by electrolytic ionizers.
3. âEfficacy of a combined system of copper and silver and free chlorine for inactivation of Naegleria fowleri amoebas in waterâ, Cassells, J. M., M. T. Yahya, C. P. Gerba, and J. B. Rose. 1995. Water Sci. Technol. 31:119-122.
4. âAnti-infective efficacy of silver-coated medical prosthesesâ. Darouiche, R. O. 1999. Clin.Infect. Dis. 29:1371-1377.
5. âDevelopment and functions of silver in water-purification and disease-control.â Davis, R. I., and S. F. Etris. 1997. Catal. Today 36:107-114. .[CrossRef]
6. âA mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureusâ. Feng, Q. L., J. Wu, G. Q. Chen, F. Z. Cui, T. N. Kim, and J. O. Kim. 2000J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52:662-668. [CrossRef][Medline]
7. âUsing silver to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections Gentry, H., and S. Cope. 2005.. Nurs. Stand. 19:51-54. [Medline]
8. âOccurrence, significance, and detection of Klebsiella in water systemsâ. Geldreich, E. E., and E. W. Rice. 1987. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 79:74.
9. âControl of bacterial growth in water using synthesized inorganic disinfectant (silver)â. Kim, J., M. Cho, B. Oh, S. Choi, and J. Yoon. 2004. Chemosphere 55:775-780. [Medline]
10. âFactors promoting survival of bacteria in chlorinated water suppliesâ. LeChevallier, M. W., C. D. Cawthon, and R. G. Lee. 1988. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:649-654.
11. âRiddle of biofilm resistanceâ Lewis, K. 2001. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:999-1007. .[Free Full Text]
12. âInteraction of silver-nitrate with readily identifiable groups â relationship to the antibacterial action of silver ionsâ Liau, S. Y., D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell. 1997.. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25:279-283. [CrossRef][Medline]
13. âNegative effect of high pH (alkaline) on biocidal efficacy of copper and silver ions in controlling Legionella pneumophilaâ Lin, Y. S., R. D. Vidic, J. E. Stout, and V. L. Yu. 2002.. Appl.18 Environ. Microbiol. 68:2711-2715. [Abstract/Free Full Text]
14. âControlled evaluation of copper-silver ionization in eradicating Legionella pneumophila from a hospital water distribution systemâ Liu, Z., J. E. Stout, L. Tedesco, M. Boldin, C. Hwang, W. F. Diven, and V. L. Yu. 1994. J. Infect. Dis. 169:919-922. .[Medline]
15. âDevelopment of a standard test to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells to disinfectantsâ Luppens, S. B. I., M. W. Reij, R. W. L. van der Heijden, F. M. Rombouts, and T. Abee. 2002.. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4194-4200.
16. âIn Vitro Evaluation of the efficacy of a silver-coated catheterâ. Curr. Microbiol. 33:1-5Manal, M. G., M. S. Mayo, L. L. May, R. B. Simmons, and D. G. Ahearn. 1996.
17. Efficacy of thermal treatment and copper-silver ionization for controlling Legionella pneumophila in high-volume hot water plumbing systems in hospitalsâ Mietzner, S., R. C. Schwille, A. Farley, E. R. Wald, J. H. Ge, S. J. States, T. Libert, R.M. Wadowsky, and S. Miuetzner. 1997. Am. J. Infect. Control. 25:452-457. .[CrossRef][Medline]
18. âPotable water and biofilms: a review of the public health implications Percival, S. L., and J. T. Walker. 1999.. Biofouling 42:99-115.
19. âAntimicrobial activity and action of silver Russell, A.D., and W. B. Hugo. 1994.. Prog. Med. Chem. 31:351-370. [Medline]
20. âFormation of natural biofilms during chlorine dioxide and U.V. disinfection in a public drinking water distribution systemâ Schwartz, T., S. Hoffmann, and U. Obst. 2003.. J. Appl.Microbiol. 95:591-601. [CrossRef][Medline]
21. âInactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila by silver in tap waterâ Silvestry-Rodriguez, N., K. R. Bright, D. C. Slack, D. R. Uhlmann, and C. P. Gerba. 22 2007.. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 42:1-6.
22. âPersistence of two model enteric viruses (B40-8 and MS-2 bacteriophages) in water distribution pipe biofilmsâ Storey, M. V., and N. J. Ashbolt. 2001.. Water Sci. Technol. 43:133-7 138. [Medline]
23. âExperiences of the first 16 hospitals using copper-silver ionization for Legionella control: implications for the evaluation of other disinfection modalitiesâ Stout. J. E., and V. L. Yu. 2003.. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 24:563-568. .[CrossRef][Medline]
24. âThe molecular mechanisms of copper and silver ion disinfection of bacteria and virusesâ. Thurman, R. B., and C. P. Gerba. 1989. CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Control. 18:295-315.
25. âCorrosion manual for internal corrosion of water distribution systemsâ. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. EPA/570/9-84/001, Office of Drinking Water,
26. âControl of biofilm growth in drinking water distribution systemsâ United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Seminar publication:. EPA/625/R-92/001, Office of Research and Development,
27. âDistributing drinking water without disinfectant: highest achievement or height of folly?â van der Kooij, D., S. van Lieverloo, J. Schellart, and P. Hiemsra. 1999. J. Water Supply: Res. Technol. - Aqua 48:31-37. [CrossRef]
28. âMicrobial biofilm formation in DUWS and their control using disinfectantsâ.Walker, J. T., and P. D. Marsh. 2007 J. Dent. 35:721-730.Wong, A. C. L. 1998. Biofilms in food processing environments. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2765- 2770. [CrossRef][Medline]
29. âGuidelines for drinking water qualityâ World Health Organization. 2004. Chemical fact sheets, p. 433-434. In, 3rd ed., vol. 1.
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